Charges are for any input that requires holding a direction or button for an extended period of time. Such as Balrog's TAP or his Dash Punch.
There are 6 different columns in the Charges window: Name, Input, UNK1, Move Flags, Frames, UNK3, and Storage Index.
This is the name of the charge input you are creating. This is the name you will select when creating Inputs that use the charge.
This column pertains to the button or direction that must be held.
Currently this is an unknown value
The characteristics for the move flags are the same as those used in the Moves section. However generally only “Lazy Stick” “Strick Stick” “Buttons” and “All Buttons” are needed.
Frames is the number of required frames in-game that the button or direction must be held before the charge is valid.
This value appears to be related to the amount of time that the charge is retained if the button is let go. At the moment the exact number values are not entirely understood.
Storage index pertains to how the game stores information on charges. Any move with a different storage index are considered a different charge. If a move has the same storage index you cannot use the charge from it on any move that has the same charge. This is used to allow overlapping charges for moves like Balrog's Dash Straight to be cancelable into his Super without having to recharge from using up his back charge.